What Is The Difference Between Job Safety Analysis (JSA) And Risk Assessment

JSA RISK Assessment

You may get confused as to the “Difference between Job Safety Analysis (JSA) and Risk Assessment”. Both may look similar, but difference exist between them.

The two (2) tends to be confusing because they have lots of similarities; however, at the end of this article you will get to pick out the difference between them.

Before we step into pointing out the difference between a Job Safety Analysis (JSA) and Risk Assessment, let us define the two terms.

What Is Job Safety Analysis (JSA)

JHA (Job hazard analysis) or JSA (Job safety analysis) is a step by step process adopted to determine the hazards involved in a particular job task and the safety measures necessary to eliminate the hazard or mitigate its effect if exposed to it.

According to OSHA, “Job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tool and the environment”.

The Job Hazard Analysis process helps in determining the hazards involved in every job task early, which will help prevent injury to the workers who will be involved in the task.

JHA is a comprehensive process. It requires that the specific job task is broken down into steps. The hazards involved with each step is identified, assessed and control measure determined before the next step of the job it picked.

What Is Risk Assessment

Risk assessment is a risk management process which involves identifying potential hazards and analyze what could happen if the hazard results to an accident.

Risk assessment is also defined as  the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat hazard.

Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components of risk (R): the magnitude of the potential loss (L), and the probability (p) that the loss will occur.

It is used to look for potential hazards in a process, facility, etc. Any risks that are found during this process will have new controls created to help mitigate them. This can be done either as a regular workplace safety task, or after an incident occurs.

Difference Between Job Safety Analysis (JSA) And Risk Assessment

From the definition of both search terms, here is the striking difference between them;

While they do sound quite similar, the most important difference is that a job safety analysis looks at job-specific risks while the risk assessment looks at a bigger picture; like a whole facility, process, environment, etc. The risk assessment will identify risks throughout the facility, and not just those that may directly impact an employee.

Example of JSA

Here’s an example of a Job Safety Analysis for a simple task, such as operating a power drill:

Task: Operating a Power Drill

Step 1: Breakdown of the Job into its individual steps

Step 2: Identify Potential Hazards, example

  • Electrical hazards from the power drill.
  • Physical injury from the rotating drill bit.
  • Dust and wood particles during drilling.
  • Tripping hazards from the power cord.

Step 3: Evaluate and control the hazards at each step

For example here are some precautions for electrical hazards:

  • Ensure the power drill is properly grounded.
  • Inspect the power cord for any damage before use.
  • Use a Residual Current Device (RCD) for added electrical protection.

Precautions for physical hazards:

  • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), including safety glasses and gloves.
  • Ensure the drill bit is securely fastened.
  • Keep hands away from the drill bit during operation.
  • For dust and wood particles:
  • Use a dust mask to protect against inhalation.
  • Perform drilling in a well-ventilated area or use local exhaust ventilation.

Step 4: State safe work procedures

Some of the safe work procedures are;

  • Before starting, inspect the power drill for any visible damage.
  • Wear appropriate PPE, including safety glasses and gloves.
  • Ensure the work area is well-lit and ventilated.
  • Secure the workpiece in a stable position.
  • Hold the power drill with both hands for better control.
  • Keep bystanders at a safe distance.
  • Power off and unplug the drill when changing drill bits or making adjustments.

Step 5: Review JSA

  • Review the JSA with workers before starting the task.
  • Provide training on the proper use of the power drill and associated safety measures.
  • Encourage workers to report any unsafe conditions or incidents.

Example of risk Assessment

Here are the steps involve in risk assessment;

  1. Identify Risks
  2. Analyse the risk
  3. Evaluate the risk and prioritize them
  4. Draw out mitigation strategies
  5. Monitor the implementation of the strategies and review where necessary
  6. Document and communicate the report of the risk assessment to all action parties.


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